The following are a list of terms that you may find helpful in using MarketMaker. In addition, there may be links within the definition that will elaborate on the term.


Census Tract:
These small statistical subdivisions (averaging about 4,000 persons) of counties generally have stable boundaries and, when first established, were designed to have relatively homogeneous demographic characteristics with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.

Certified Humane Care:

The egg, dairy, meat or poultry product has been produced with the welfare of the farm animal in mind. Food products that carry the label are certified to have come from facilities that meet precise, objective standards for farm animal treatment. For the specific animal standards set for this certification, see the Humane Farm Animal Care website at

Certified Organic:

Organic agriculture is a system of production that promotes management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony while minimizing the use of off-farm inputs. The NOP (National Organic Program) establishes the legal requirements for organic certification and is the national standard for certification.

Free Range:

Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner. Applies to meat, eggs and dairy farming.

GMO Feed Free/GMO Free:

A product that does not contain genetically modified organisms. What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods? Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria.


Arabic term meaning "permissible". It most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law., especially where meat and poultry are concerned.

Hormone Free:

The term "no hormones administered" may be approved for use on the label of beef products if the producer provides sufficient documentation to the Agency showing no hormones have been used in raising the animals. Hormones are not allowed in raising hogs or poultry. Therefore, the claim "no hormones added" cannot be used on the labels of pork or poultry unless it is followed by a statement that says, "Federal regulations prohibit the use of hormones."


Hydroponics is used to describe many different types of systems for growing plants without soil. Among the most common are: water culture, aquaculture, or nutriculture, aggregate culture, aeroponics, continuous flow systems.


Kosher" may be used only on the labels of meat and poultry products prepared under Rabbinical supervision.


A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally processed (a process which does not fundamentally alter the raw product) may be labeled natural. The label must explain the use of the term natural (such as - no added colorings or artificial ingredients; minimally processed.)

No Antibiotics Fed/No Antibiotics Ever:

Many producers raise meat without antibiotics. The U.S. Department of Agriculture allows meat to carry "no antibiotics" on the label if "sufficient documentation is provided by the producer to the Agency demonstrating that the animals were raised without antibiotics."


Knowing the origin of the product.

Industry Classifications


Beginning in 1997, the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was replaced by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). NAICS are six digit numerical codes assigned by the U.S. government to business establishments to identify the primary business of the establishment. The classification was developed to facilitate the collection, presentation, and analysis of data; and to promote uniformity and comparability in the presentation of statistical data collected by various agencies of the federal government, state agencies and private organizations. The first three digits of the NAICS codes used for this website and a brief description are listed below:

  • 311 Food Manufacturing: This major group includes establishments that transform livestock and agricultural products into products for intermediate or final consumption. The industry groups are distinguished by the raw materials (generally of animal or vegetable origin) processed into food products. The food products manufactured in these establishments are typically sold to wholesalers or retailers for distribution to consumers.
  • 424 - Grocery and Related Product Merchant Wholesalers: This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of a general line (wide range) of groceries.
  • 445 - Food and Beverage Stores: This major group usually sells food and beverages from fixed point-of-sale locations.
  • 722 Food Services and Drinking Places: Establishments in this group prepare meals, snacks, and beverages to customer order for immediate on-premises and off-premises consumption. Some provide food and drink only while others provide various combinations of seating space, waiter/waitress services and incidental amenities, such as limited entertainment.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC):

SIC codes are four digit numerical codes assigned by the U.S. government to business establishments to identify the primary business of the establishment. The classification covers all economic activities: agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, and trapping; mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation; communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; and much more.

Methods of Sale

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA):

A CSA is a way for the food buying public to create a relationship with a farm and to receive a weekly basket of produce. By making a financial commitment to a farm, people become "members" (or "shareholders," or "subscribers") of the CSA. Most CSA farmers prefer that members pay for the season up-front, but some farmers will accept weekly or monthly payments. Some CSAs also require that members work a small number of hours on the farm during the growing season.


Product is delivered to the consumer after the sale is complete.

Farmers' Market:

A Farmers' Market is one in which farmers, growers or producers from a defined local area are present in person to sell their own produce, direct to the public. All products sold should have been grown, reared, caught, brewed, pickled, baked, smoked or processed by the stallholder. For more information, see the following site:


Selling product to consumers through a website over the Internet.

Mail Order:

Selling product to consumers through a catalog. The order is submitted through the mail.

On Farm Sales:

Food products are for sale on the farm. On-farm sales may include Pick-Your-Own (PYO) and Roadside Stands or farm markets.

  • Pick-Your-Own - customer goes to the farm and picks the food products they want, such as strawberries, green beans, etc.
  • Roadside Stand - Farmer establishes a selling place (stand) near a roadway and sells produce directly to consumers. Often the stand is located on a farm or orchard.

Retail/Retail Storefront:

Selling products directly to the consumer, usually from a year-round permanent structure.

Tasting Room:

Location within a winery where the customer can sample/taste the wines being sold before purchasing.


Selling directly to a wholesaler/distributor.

Profile Definitions


Generally derived from date of birth information and is based on the age of the person in complete years.


Refers to the highest level of education completed in terms of the highest degree or the highest level of schooling completed.

Foreign Born Population:

The foreign-born population includes all people who were not U.S. citizens at birth. Foreign-born people are those who indicated they were either a US citizen by naturalization or they were not a citizen of the United States. The foreign-born population includes: immigrants (legal permanent residents), temporary migrants (e.g., students), humanitarian migrants (e.g., refugees), and unauthorized migrants (people illegally residing in the United States).

Aggregations of Countries in the MarketMaker Profile

  • Europe
    • Northern Europe: Ireland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Other Northern Europe
    • Southern Europe: Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Other Southern Europe
    • Eastern Europe: Belarus, Bosnia, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic and Slovakia), Herzegovina, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, Other Eastern Europe
    • Western Europe: Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Other Western Europe
  • Asia
    • Eastern Asia: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Other Eastern Asia
    • Western Asia: Armenia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Other Western Asia
    • South Eastern Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Other South Eastern Asia
    • South Central Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Pakistan, Other South Central Asia
  • Africa
    • Northern Africa: Egypt, Other Northern Africa
    • Southern Africa: South Africa, Other Southern Africa
    • Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Other Eastern Africa
    • Western Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Other Western Africa
    • Middle Africa
  • Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
  • Latin America
    • Caribbean: Barbados, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago, Other Caribbean
    • Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Other Central America
    • South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela, Other South America
  • North America: Canada, United States

Household Type:

A household includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit as their usual place of residence. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room intended for occupancy as a separate living quarters. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters.

  • Family Household - A family includes a household and one or more people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householder's family in census tabulations.
    • Married Couple Family
    • Married Couple Family with Children <18 years
    • Single Parent Family
    • Stepfamily
  • Non Family Household - householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.


The concept of race, as used by the Census Bureau, reflects self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify. These categories are socio-political constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. Furthermore, the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.

  • White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
  • Black or African American: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am., or Negro," or provide written entries such as African American, Afro-American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment.
  • Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian."
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Samoan," and "Other Pacific Islander."
  • Some Other race: This category includes all other responses not included in the "White," "Black or African American," "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" race categories describer above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial , or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) inthe "Some other race" write-in space are included in this category.
  • Two or more races: People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses.
  • Hispanic: People who identify with the terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census questionaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.

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